The Commonwealth of Australia (the
official name of Australia) occupies the entire Australian
continent, the smallest in the world. The country also
covers the Tasmanian island as well as other small islands
across the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The country is
comprised of six states, namely, New South Wales, South
Australia, Victoria, Western Australia, Tasmania and
Queensland. Australia also covers two mainland territories:
the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory.
New South Wales, situated in the southeast portion of the
continent, is the oldest and so far most populated state in
Australia. It was founded to comprise most of the mainland
in 1788. In 1840, New Zealand was annexed by Great Britain
as part of the state.
In the 19th century, large portions of
the original NSW were separated successively to form British
colonies of South Australia, Queensland, Tasmania and New
Zealand. The capital city of the state is Sydney.
South Australia logically occupies the southern-central area
of the country.
The state is known to cover most of the
continent’s arid land areas. In history, South Australia was
established as a freely settled and well planned British
province, unlike most other states that were convict
settlements. These days, the state remains freely vibrant
and innovative culturally.
South Australia is noted for its
fine wine and festivals. The capital city is Adelaide.
Victoria occupies the southeastern area of
The state is the smallest in the
mainland, but is mostly urbanized and is densely populated. Victoria was a European
farming community in the 1830s. In 1851, a gold reserve was
discovered in the area, leading to the instant
transformation of Victoria as a leading commercial and
industrial center. It is currently the second most populated
Australian state, following NSW. The capital city is
Melbourne, where about 70% of Victorians reside.
Western Australia occupies a third of the continent, of
course in the west. Thus, the state is the largest in the
country and the second biggest subnational entity worldwide.
Known for its rich biota, Western Australia fosters about
540 different species of birds, about 15 of which are
exclusively found in the area.
People are colloquially called ‘sandgropers,’ a name of a type of insect usually
found in sand dunes surrounding Perth, the capital city.Tasmania is a large island located south of the continent’s
eastern side. The state covers not just the island but also
other surrounding islands. The federal government is
promoting Tasmania as the ‘Island of Inspiration’ and the
Natural State, due to its unspoiled and large natural
environment. The capital city of Hobart is also the biggest
in the state.
Queensland occupies mainland’s northeastern section. This
state is the second biggest in the country, in terms of land
area, after Western Australia. It is also the third most
populated, following NSW and Victoria. Because of its
tropical climate, there were many banana plantations, giving
its people the nickname ‘Banana Benders.’ In general,
Queensland is called the Sunshine State because of its
tropical and warm weather. Brisbane is the state capital