Australia Government







Australia Government



Government in Australia

The Australian continent is composed of six self-governing British colonies that were united under one government through an agreement in 1901. The agreement was later embodied in the Australian Constitution and formed what is now known as the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia government is that of a federal constitutional monarchy, which operates under the principles of a democratic parliament.

The government recognizes the Queen’s authority above all, but mostly as a last resort to resolve complicated disputes and cases with vague or overlapping of jurisdictions and responsibilities.

Otherwise, the Queen is more of a symbolic status rather than an authority that meddles in each and every state. 



She is represented by the Governor-General, who acts in her behalf as the head of the state. Australia government practices federalism wherein authority and powers are divided and distributed accordingly between and the federal government and among the six colonies.

Each of the colonies, which are now referred to as states, essentially retained their self-governing powers to a certain degree. Separation of powers is also defined and distributed among three branches of the government namely, the executive, the legislative and the judiciary.

Australia Government

The executive body is composed of the Queen of Australia (who is also the Queen of other Commonwealth realms) and her representative, the Governor-General. They hold imperative constitutional powers that are vested to them under the Australian Constitution.

The legislative body, on the other hand, is composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate, headed by the Queen. There are a total of 76 senators, twelve from each state, two from the Northern Territory, and another two from the ACT (Australian Capital Territory); while the House of Representatives has 150 members selected by preferential voting.


These are the people responsible for making laws and changing them as they deem appropriate. Meanwhile, the judiciary body consists of the High Court of Australia and several Federal Courts such as the Federal Magistrates Court, the Federal Court of Australia, and the Family Court of Australia. These are the offices that interpret and implement the laws.

These three main government branches are further broken down into separate chapters for further distribution of powers. This detailed distribution of powers ensures that each of the state will maintain their freedom and control over their respective assets and sources of income, which was their primary concern and worry during the initial discussions of uniting under one government.

Each of these states has their own separate constitutions resulting to a total of seven parliaments in Australia. These constitutions function individually over their respective area of jurisdiction. Each constitution is unique and especially customized to the needs of the constituents and the kind of place they live in. Should there be any dispute or conflict with the other states or with the Commonwealth, the High Court of Australia shall intervene and decide over the issue. Any of the state can also transfer a particular authority or power to the Commonwealth if it chooses. On the other hand, the states can also request for the transfer of a certain power the Commonwealth hold to their own.

Australian Government

These transfers, however, requires the amendment of the constitution, which in turn requires a referendum that must result to “double majority”. This means that the result should be a majority of the votes as a whole, and a majority of the states approves the proposed amendment.



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